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What is Apache Solr?
Apache Solr is an open-source search server platform written in Java language by Apache software foundation. It is highly scalable and ready to deploy search engine to handle a large volume of text-centric data. The purpose of using Apache Solr is to index and search large amount of web content and give relevant content based on search query.
In this Apache Solr tutorial for beginners, you will learn-History of Apache Solr
1999: Doug Cutting published Lucene
2004: Solr was developed at CNET by Yonik Seeley as a part company in-house project
2006: CNET publish the source code by donating it to the Apache Software Foundation
2008: Solr 1.3 was released with enhanced search capabilities and performance enhancements
2010: Merger of Lucene and Solr
2012: Solr version 4.0 was released, with new Solr Cloud feature
2023: Solr 6.0, was released which offers support for the execution of parallel SQL queriesFeatures of Apache Solr
Here are Important features of Apache Solr:
Automatic Load Balancing
Standards-Based Open Interfaces – XML, JSON, and HTTP
Recommendations & Spell Suggestions are supported
Support for Auto-Completion and Geo-Spatial Search
Built-in Security for Authentication and Authorization
Allows you to perform a multilingual Keyword search
Batch and Streaming processing
Building machine-learning models are easy
Specially optimized for high volume web Traffic
Comprehensive HTML Admiration Interfaces
Supports both Schema and Schemaless configuration
Faceted Search and Filtering
Central Configuration For Entire ClusterKey Terms used in Apache Solr
Now in this Solr search engine tutorial, we will learn about key terms used in Apache Solr:
Key Term Description
Solr Core Solr Core can be defined as an index of texts and fields derived from all the documents. One Solr Instance may have single or multiple Solr Cores.
Core = an instance of Lucene Index + Solr configuration
Solr Instance Solr Instance is an instance a Solr running in the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). In Standalone mode, it only offers one instance whereas in cloud mode you can have one or more instances.
Indexing Indexing is a method for adding document’s content to Solr Index. Apache Solr uses Apache Lucene Inverted Index technique.
Document It is a group of fields and their values. A document is a basic unit of data stored in Apache Core. One Apache core may contain one or more Documents.
Field The field is a key-value pair that stores the actual data in a Document. Key specifies the field name and value contains that Field data. A document may have a one or multiple fields. It is used by Apache Solr to index the document content.
Restful APIs To communicate with Solr, it is not necessary to have used Java programming. Instead, Apache Solr provides restful services to communicate with it. You can send documents and receive results in various file formats like JSON, XML, and CSV.
Full-text search Solr offers features for full-text search such as tokens, phrases, spell checking, auto-complete, wildcard, etc.
Admin Interface Solr offers an easy-to-use, user-friendly, feature powered, user interface. Using the interface you can perform tasks like managing logs, add, delete, update and search documents.
Text-Centric and Sorted by Relevance Apache Solr is used to search text documents, and the results are delivered according to the user’s query.
Node In Solr cloud, every single instance is known as a node.
Cluster A cluster is a collection of nodes.
Collection A cluster has a logical index which is also called a collection.
Shard It is a small area of the collection which offers single or multiple replicas of the index.
Replica A replica is a copy of shard which runs in a node.
Leader It is a replica of the shard, which sends the requests of the Solr Cloud for the rest of replicas.Apache Solr Architecture
Now in this Solr search tutorial, let’s learn about Apache Solr Architecture:
Apache Solr ArchitectureApache Solr compromises following components: Query:
The query parser parses the queries which you need to pass to Solr. It verifies your query to check syntactical errors. After parsing the queries, it translates into a format which is known by Lucene.Request Handler:
The request sends to Apache Solr are processed by the request handler. The request can be a query request or index update requests. You need to select the request handler according to your requirement. To pass a request to Solr, you need to map the handler to a specific URL end-point.Response Writer
A response writer will generate formatted outputs for input queries. It supports various formats like XML, JSON, chúng tôi You may have different response writers for different type of requests.Update Handler:
When you send an update request to Apache Solr, it is run through a set of plugins, signature, logging, indexing. This process is known as update request processor. Update handler also responsible for modifications like adding or dropping filed, etc.Apache Solr Applications
Easy access to search
News and event notification
Single sign-on authentication
Search across all content
Authorized access only
Optimized for scientists
Data dependent menus
Specialized grid filters
Designed for researchers
Rich meta-data access
View document accelerator
Embedded in PLM Application
Offers better search experience than an RDBMS could provide
Late-binding security model
Document actions exposed on the toolbarHow to install Apache Solr?
Next, Wait for some time and then, Request is accepted after some time.
On the next page, Keep the settings default
Ensure you have the pem file of the key
You will see this success message
In EC2 console, Note the public DNS of your instance
To access Solr, Simply use the URL
in our case it becomes
Note: If you have trouble accessing the instance, change inbound and outbound rules in your instance to allow all traffic as shown in the below Solr query example:Elasticsearch Vs. Apache Solr
Parameters Apache Solr Elastic Search
Nature It is an open source project. Not an open-sourced project.
Static status Static in shema.xml Static in elasticsearch.yml
Format XML, CSV, JSON Only JSON
Index Can be reloaded during runtime with collection/core reload Defined during index/type creation with a REST call
Documentation It is well documented. It is badly documented.
Splitting Shards Possible Not possibleAdvantages of Apache Solr
Helps you to reduce the amount of time taken to locate Information
It is fast, simple, powerful and flexible search engine
Helps you to make your products and services more accessible
Increase customer spend on a web application
Helps you to improve user experience on the web application to increase revenue and profit
Comprehensive HTML based Administration Interface
Flexible and Adaptable with XML configuration
Extensible Plugin Architecture
Highly Scalable, robust, fault-tolerant search engine
Supports Distributed, Shading, Replication, Clustering and Multi-Node ArchitectureDisAdvantages of Apache Solr
It is not an ACID compliant Data Store
It is not useful as a primary data store. Only useful as Secondary Data Store
Not offers support for transactions and distributed transactions
Not support Joins and Complex Queries
Not optimal for Normalized DataSummary
Apache Solr is an Open-source REST-API based search server
Apache Solr was developed at CNET by Yonik Seeley as a part company in-house project
Apache Solr offers features like Auto-Completion and Geo-Spatial Search
Solr Core, Solr Instance, Indexing, Document, Restful APIs, Full-text search, Admin Interface, etc. are some key terms used in Apache Solr
Query, Request handler, Request writer and update handlers are some of the important components of Apache Solr
Intranet Portal, Federated Client, Instrument Datasets, Regulatory Documents, Embedded in PLM Application are useful Apache Solr Applications
Apache Solr is well documented compares to elastic search which is badly documented
The main drawback of this application It is not an ACID compliant Data Store
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